The benefits of power factor correction capacitors are numerous. These benefits range from lower power system demand charges, increased carrying capacity of existing circuits, and reduced power system losses. The benefits of a power factor correction extend beyond the balance sheet. Also, there are significant environmental benefits of getting power factor correction. This means that companies reduce carbon emissions and contribute to the environment.
Reduced Application Fee
Most utilities charge a maximum order based on the highest recorded demand in kilowatts (KW meter) or a percentage of the highest recorded demand in KVA (KVA meter), whichever is greater. When the power factor is low, the measured KVA is much higher than the KW demand. Power factor improvement through power factor correction capacitors reduces ordering costs, which helps reduce electricity charges.
Increase Stamina On Existing Circuits
A load that draws reactive power also requires reactive current. Placing power factor correction capacitors at the end of the current circuit near the inductive load reduces the current flow per cycle. The reduction in current flow due to the improved power factor allows the course to carry new loads, which saves the cost of upgrading the distribution network when the additional capacity for additional machinery and equipment is needed and helps companies save thousands of dollars in unnecessary upgrade costs for additionally, reduced current flow reduces losses resistance in the circuit.
A lower power factor means more current for a given load. With the increase of modern lines, the voltage drop on the conductors increases, leading to a voltage drop in the equipment. Improving the power factor reduces the voltage drop on the conductors and enhances the device’s voltage.
Reduce Power System Losses
Reducing conductor loss alone rarely provides sufficient economic benefits to justify the installation of capacitors. Still, the additional benefits may be, particularly in older plants with long feeders and field pump operations. System conductor losses are proportional to the square of the current. Since the current decreases are directly proportional to the power factor improvement, the losses are inversely proportional to the square of the power factor.
Reduce Your Carbon Footprint
Reducing the demand cost of the power system through power factor correction reduces stress on the power grid and carbon emissions. Over time, this reduced demand on the grid can translate into hundreds of tons of reduced carbon production. All this is due to the improvement of the energy efficiency of the power system through power factor correction.
The Disadvantages Of Low Power Factor
In the article above, we discussed how power factor correction capacitors can benefit you. Let us see what will happen if the power factor is low?
Huge Loss Of Copper
Copper losses are directly proportional to the square of the line current, which is inversely proportional to the power factor in the circuit. The combination of these two relations shows that the loss of copper is inversely proportional to the square of the power factor. A lower power factor results in higher line currents and higher copper losses. This reduces the efficiency of the power system.
Large kVA rating
Electrical machines such as transformers are rated at kVA. The relationship between machine power factor and kVA rating is given by the following equation:
kVA = kW/cosФ
From this equation, we can see that the power factor of a machine is inversely proportional to its kVA rating. The higher the kVA rating, the higher the cost of the equipment and the higher the volume.
Weak Voltage Regulation
We already know that the lower the power factor, the greater the line current is drawn by the electrical equipment. As a result, significant winds with a common lag power factor cause a large voltage drop in transformers and generators. This reduces the voltage available at the supply side of the device and results in poor voltage regulation.
Reasons for low power factor
This section discusses some of the leading causes of low power factors.
The presence of harmonic currents degrades the power factor of the system.
Improper connection or electrical accident can cause a three-phase power imbalance and low power factor.
The Volatility Of Power System Loads
The demand for loads in modern power systems is not constant throughout the day. The demand is high in the morning and evening, and it is bright the rest of the time. When the system is lightly loaded, the voltage rises, which increases the magnetizing current demand of the machine. This reduces the power factor of the system.
90% of industrial loads consist of induction motors. These machines draw magnetizing currents, adjust the magnetic field for proper operation, and operate at a low power factor. The inductive load lag draws the current, and the power factor drops.